7 апреля в 14:00 в конференц-зале Института языкознания состоится доклад профессора Копенгагенской высшей школы бизнеса Пера Дурст-Андерсена на тему «Директивные речевые акты как коммуникативные способы решения проблемы».
Доклад будет прочитан на английском языке.
Приглашаются все желающие!
Directives as communication-based problem-solving:
Imperatives, declaratives and interrogatives
as different pragmatic ways to solve a problem
Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
It will be argued that, despite their obvious anchoring in verbal communication based on linguistic signs (symbols), Directives, i.e. Requests and Offers, have more in common with gestures which primarily involve indexes and icons. It will be demonstrated that this type of speech act should be interpreted as consisting of three indexical sign types: (1) a symptom that points at the speaker and goes back in time; (2) a signal that points at the hearer and goes forward in time; and (3) a model that points at a situation and is timeless, because it can be used at any time. On this basis, three speech act process models for communication-based problem-solving are created: (1) a basic model for imperatives which is used when the speaker finds that the solution lies in the situation itself – therefore his proposal to the hearer is non-negotiable; (2) a derived model for declaratives which is used when the speakers finds that he himself has the solution to the problem – therefore his proposal has to be negotiated with the hearer to arrive at a final offer accepted by both parties; (3) and a third variant for interrogatives which is used when the speaker finds that the solution lies with the hearer – therefore he gives him an open proposal. These three models, all involving symptom, signal and model in that particular order, are tested against Russian, English, Danish and Chinese data from a recently made production test involving 250 participants. It appears that all speakers seem to follow the order given by the models, but it also appears that each of the four languages has its own way of priming the symptom, signal and model. This means that for the first time we are able to describe and explain different ways of performing exactly the same speech act, not only within the same language, but also across different languages. Moreover, the results open up for a trichotomic approach to the traditional dichotomic understanding of the pragmatic notion of ‘face’: the speaker’s face, the hearer’s face, and society’s face.